An Updated Review on Current Treatment of Alopecia Areata and Newer Therapeutic Options


Alopecia areata, immunosuppressant, management, new drugs, therapy


Alopecia areata (AA) is a dermatological disease that causes nonscarring hair loss. It can occur at any age and has an unpredictable and variable evolution in individuals. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the novel therapies currentl



Alopecia areata (AA) is an immune-mediated disease that produces nonscarring hair loss. AA may occur as an acute self-limiting disorder with one to five patches that resolve within 6–12 months, as a chronic disorder with multiple patches relapsing and remitting over many years, or as total hair loss of the scalp or universal loss of every terminal hair on the body.[] AA has a reported incidence of 0.1%–0.2%, with a lifetime risk of 1.7%.[]

The onset of AA typically occurs before 40 years of age; however, late onset is also well described.[] Men and women appear to be equally affected, and there is no known racial predisposition.

The response of AA to treatment is unpredictable. Some patients regrow spontaneously without medical intervention within 12 months. Even during a course of successful treatment, minor relapses can occur. It is not uncommon for a patient to develop a new lesion of AA on one part of the scalp while simultaneously experiencing regrowth in a recently treated patch of AA on another part of the scalp.[]


AA is a benign condition in majority of the affected individuals, and spontaneous remission is common. Treatment is mainly directed toward halting the disease activity as there is no evidence that the treatment modalities influence the ultimate natural course of the disease. Treatment modalities depend upon the extent of hair loss and the patient’s age. The management of AA should focus on both regrowth and maintenance of hair growth. The outcome is unpredictable because of frequent relapses. Given the chronic nature of AA, most therapies lose efficacy after being discontinued.


The need for new therapies for AA exists due to the limited efficacy provided by most currently available treatments, especially in cases of extensive hair loss.


Topical corticosteroids

The first-line treatment for most patients with patchy AA is a topical corticosteroid. Addressing the impressive inflammatory process occurring in AA, corticosteroids have by far been the most commonly used treatment modality.[] They are a good option in children because of their painless application and wide safety margin.[] Treatment must be continued for a minimum of 3 months before regrowth can be expected, and maintenance therapy often is sometimes necessary. Topical corticosteroids have limited benefits in patchy AA and can be associated with folliculitis.[] A study conducted by Das et al. revealed 70% hair regrowth at the end of 3 months with the use of topical steroids.[]

Intralesional corticosteroids

Intralesional corticosteroids are widely used in the treatment of AA. In fact, they are the first-line treatment in localized conditions involving <50% of the scalp.[] Hydrocortisone acetate (25 mg/ml) and triamcinolone acetonide (5–10 mg/ml) are commonly used. Intralesional triamcinolone acetonide 5–10 mg/ml is injected locally every 4–6 weeks in multiple 0.1 ml injections approximately 1 cm apart. The solution is injected in or just beneath the dermis, and a maximum of 3 ml on the scalp in one visit is recommended. It results in localized hair growth in about 60% of treated sites.[]

Lower concentrations of 2.5 mg/ml are used for eyebrows and face. Regrowth usually is seen within 4–6 weeks in responsive patients. Skin atrophy at the sites of injection is a common side effect, particularly if triamcinolone is used, but this usually resolves after a few months. Relapses often occur.[]

Repeated injections at the same site or the use of higher concentrations of triamcinolone should be avoided as this may lead to prolonged skin atrophy. Pain limits the practicality of this treatment method in children who are <10 years of age. Severe cases of AA, alopecia totalis, alopecia universalis, as well as rapidly progressive AA, respond poorly to this form of treatment.[] A study by Ganjoo and Thappa revealed 47% regrowth at 12 weeks and 95% regrowth at 24 weeks with intralesional triamcinolone acetonide at intervals of 4 weeks.[]


1. Cranwell WC, Lai VW, Photiou L, Meah N, Wall D, Rathnayake D, et al. Treatment of alopecia areata: An Australian expert consensus statement. Australas J Dermatol. 2019;60:163–70. [PubMed[]
2. Juárez-Rendón KJ, Rivera Sánchez G, Reyes-López MÁ, García-Ortiz JE, Bocanegra-García V, Guardiola-Avila I, et al. Alopecia areata.Current situation and perspectives. Arch Argent Pediatr. 2017;115:e404–11. [PubMed[]
3. Madani S, Shapiro J. Alopecia areata update. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;42:549–66. [PubMed[]
4. Ikeda T. A new classification of alopecia areata. Dermatology. 1965;131:421–45. [PubMed[]
5. Shimmer BP, Parker KL. Goodman’s and Gillman’s: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001. pp. 1661–3. []
6. Tan E, Tay YK, Giam YC. A clinical study of childhood alopecia areata in Singapore. Pediatr Dermatol. 2002;19:298–301. [PubMed[]
7. Tosti A, Piraccini BM, Pazzaglia M, Vincenzi C. Clobetasol propionate 0.05% under occlusion in the treatment of alopecia totalis/universalis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;49:96–8. [PubMed[]
8. Das S, Ghorami RC, Chatterjee T, Banerjee G. Comparative assessment of topical steroids, topical tretenoin (0.05%) and dithranol paste in alopecia areata. Indian J Dermatol. 2010;55:148–9. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
9. Ross EK, Shapiro J. Management of hair loss. Dermatol Clin. 2005;23:227–43. [PubMed[]
10. Kubeyinje EP. Intralesional triamcinolone acetonide in alopecia areata amongst 62 Saudi Arabs. East Afr Med J. 1994;71:674–5. [PubMed[]
11. Kumaresan M. Intralesional steroids for alopecia areata. Int J Trichology. 2010;2:63–5. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
12. Price VH. Treatment of hair loss. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:964–73. [PubMed[]
13. Ganjoo S, Thappa DM. Dermoscopic evaluation of therapeutic response to an intralesional corticosteroid in the treatment of alopecia areata. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2013;79:408–17. [PubMed[]
14. Hoffmann R, Happle R. Topical immunotherapy in alopecia areata.What, how, and why? Dermatol Clin. 1996;14:739–44. [PubMed[]
15. Rokhsar CK, Shupack JL, Vafai JJ, Washenik K. Efficacy of topical sensitizers in the treatment of alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998;39:751–61. [PubMed[]
16. Orecchia G, Malagoli P, Santagostino L. Treatment of severe alopecia areata with squaric acid dibutylester in pediatric patients. Pediatr Dermatol. 1994;11:65–8. [PubMed[]
17. Ibrahim SA, Esawy AM, Abdelshafy AS. Treatment of chronic extensive alopecia areata by diphenylcyclopropenone alone versus in combination with anthralin. Dermatol Ther. 2019;32:e13010. [PubMed[]
18. Otberg N, Shapiro J. Alopecia areata. In: Kang S, Amagai M, Bruckner AL, Enk AH, Margolis DJ, McMichael AJ, et al., editors. Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology. 9th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2019. pp. 1517–22. []
19. Sakai K, Fukushima S, Mizuhashi S, Jinnin M, Makino T, Inoue Y, et al. Effect of topical immunotherapy with squaric acid dibutylester for alopecia areata in Japanese patients. Allergol Int. 2020;69:274–8. [PubMed[]
20. Mohan KH, Balachandran C, Shenoi SD, Rao R, Sripathi H, Prabhu S. Topical dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) for alopecia areata: Revisited. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2008;74:401–2. [PubMed[]
21. Nasimi M, Ghandi N, Abedini R, Mirshamsi A, Shakoei S, Seirafi H. Efficacy and safety of anthralin in combination with diphenylcyclopropenone in the treatment of alopecia areata: A retrospective case series. Arch Dermatol Res. 2019;311:607–13. [PubMed[]
22. Tang L, Cao L, Sundberg JP, Lui H, Shapiro J. Restoration of hair growth in mice with an alopecia areata-like disease using topical anthralin. Exp Dermatol. 2004;13:5–10. [PubMed[]
23. Nelson DA, Spielvogel RL. Anthralin therapy for alopecia areata. Int J Dermatol. 1985;24:606–7. [PubMed[]
24. Fiedler-Weiss VC, Buys CM. Evaluation of anthralin in the treatment of alopecia areata. Arch Dermatol. 1987;123:1491–3. [PubMed[]
25. Wong WK, Shin JH, Choi GS. Therapeutic effect of topical anthralin for treatment-resistant extensive alopecia areata. Korean J Dermatol. 2008;46:641–7. []
26. Fenton DA, Wilkinson JD. Topical minoxidil in the treatment of alopecia areata. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1983;287:1015–7. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
27. Malhotra K, Herakal KC. Does microneedling with 5% minoxidil offer added advantage for treatment of androgenetic alopecia in comparison to use of topical 5% minoxidil alone? Int J Res Med Sci. 2020;8:1282–6. []
28. Fiedler VC, Wendrow A, Szpunar GJ, Metzler C, DeVillez RL. Treatment-resistant alopecia areata.Response to combination therapy with minoxidil plus anthralin. Arch Dermatol. 1990;126:756–9. [PubMed[]
29. Fiedler VC. Alopecia areata: Current therapy. J Invest Dermatol. 1991;96:69S–70S. [PubMed[]
30. Olsen EA, Carson SC, Turney EA. Systemic steroids with or without 2% topical minoxidil in the treatment of alopecia areata. Arch Dermatol. 1992;128:1467–73. [PubMed[]
31. Suchonwanit P, Thammarucha S, Leerunyakul K. Minoxidil and its use in hair disorders: A review. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2019;13:2777–86. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
32. El Taieb MA, Ibrahim H, Nada EA, Seif Al-Din M. Platelets rich plasma versus minoxidil 5% in treatment of alopecia areata: A trichoscopic evaluation. Dermatol Ther. 2017;30:1–6. [PubMed[]
33. Price VH, Willey A, Chen BK. Topical tacrolimus in alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005;52:138–9. [PubMed[]
34. Jiang H, Yamamoto S, Kato R. Induction of anagen in telogen mouse skin by topical application of FK506, a potent immunosuppressant. J Invest Dermatol. 1995;104:523–5. [PubMed[]
35. Talpur R, Vu J, Bassett R, Stevens V, Duvic M. Phase I/II randomized bilateral half-head comparison of topical bexarotene 1% gel for alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;61:9.e1–9. [PubMed[]
36. Roseborough I, Lee H, Chwalek J, Stamper RL, Price VH. Lack of efficacy of topical latanoprost and bimatoprost ophthalmic solutions in promoting eyelash growth in patients with alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;60:705–6. [PubMed[]
37. Coronel-Perez IM, Rodriguez-Rey EM, Camacho-Martinez FM. Latanoprost in the treatment of eyelash alopecia in alopecia areata universalis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010;24:481–5. [PubMed[]
38. Burton JL, Shuster S. Large doses of glucocorticoid in the treatment of alopecia areata. Acta Derm Venereol. 1975;55:493–6. [PubMed[]
39. Sharma VK. Pulsed administration of corticosteroids in the treatment of alopecia areata. Int J Dermatol. 1996;35:133–6. [PubMed[]
40. Ait Ourhroui M, Hassam B, Khoudri I. Treatment of alopecia areata with prednisolone in a once-monthly oral pulse. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2010;137:514–8. [PubMed[]
41. Sharma VK, Gupta S. Twice weekly 5-mg dexamethasone oral pulse in the treatment of extensive alopecia areata. J Dermatol. 1999;26:562–5. [PubMed[]
42. Majid I, Masood Q, Hassan I, Khan D, Chisti M. Childhood vitiligo: Response to methylprednisolone oral minipulse therapy and topical fluticasone combination. Indian J Dermatol. 2009;54:124–7. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
43. Pasricha JS, Khaitan BK. Oral mini-pulse therapy with betamethasone in vitiligo patients having extensive or fast-spreading disease. Int J Dermatol. 1993;32:753–7. [PubMed[]
44. Gupta P, Verma KK, Khandpur S, Bhari N. Weekly azathioprine pulse versus betamethasone oral mini-pulse in the treatment of moderate-to-severe alopecia areata. Indian J Dermatol. 2019;64:292–8. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
45. Vañó-Galván S, Hermosa-Gelbard Á, Sánchez-Neila N, Miguel-Gómez L, Saceda-Corralo D, Rodrigues-Barata R, et al. Treatment of recalcitrant adult alopecia areata universalis with oral azathioprine. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016;74:1007–8. [PubMed[]
46. Saoji V, Kulkarni S, Madke B. Alopecia areata treated with oral azathioprine: A case series. Int J Trichology. 2019;11:219–22. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
47. Chartaux E, Jolly P. Long-term follow-up of the efficacy of methotrexate alone or in combination with low dose of oral corticosteroids in the treatment of alopecia totalis or universalis. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2010;137:507–13. [PubMed[]
48. Husein-ElAhmed H, Steinhoff M. Efficacy and predictive factors of cyclosporine A in alopecia areata: A systematic review with meta-analysis. J Dermatolog Treat. 2022;33:1643–51. [PubMed[]
49. Bhat YJ, Manzoor S, Khan AR, Qayoom S. Trace element levels in alopecia areata. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2009;75:29–31. [PubMed[]
50. Phan K, Ramachandran V, Sebaratnam DF. Methotrexate for alopecia areata: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2019;80:120–7.e2. [PubMed[]
51. Otberg N. Systemic treatment for alopecia areata. Dermatol Ther. 2011;24:320–5. [PubMed[]
52. Yoo KH, Kim MN, Kim BJ, Kim CW. Treatment of alopecia areata with fractional photothermolysis laser. Int J Dermatol. 2010;49:845–7. [PubMed[]
53. Claudy AL, Gagnaire D. PUVA treatment of alopecia areata. Arch Dermatol. 1983;119:975–8. [PubMed[]
54. Mitchell AJ, Douglass MC. Topical photochemotherapy for alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1985;12:644–9. [PubMed[]
55. Lassus A, Kianto U, Johansson E, Juvakoski T. PUVA treatment for alopecia areata. Dermatologica. 1980;161:298–304. [PubMed[]
56. Bayramgürler D, Demirsoy EO, Aktürk AŞ, Kıran R. Narrowband ultraviolet B phototherapy for alopecia areata. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2011;27:325–7. [PubMed[]
57. Veith W, Deleo V, Silverberg N. Medical phototherapy in childhood skin diseases. Minerva Pediatr. 2011;63:327–33. [PubMed[]
58. Al-Mutairi N. 308-nm excimer laser for the treatment of alopecia areata. Dermatol Surg. 2007;33:1483–7. [PubMed[]
59. Al-Mutairi N. 308-nm excimer laser for the treatment of alopecia areata in children. Pediatr Dermatol. 2009;26:547–50. [PubMed[]
60. Sasmaz S, Arican O. Comparison of azelaic acid and anthralin for the therapy of patchy alopecia areata: A plot study. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2005;6:403–6. [PubMed[]
61. Sharquie KE, Al-Obaidi HK. Onion juice (Allium cepa L.), a new topical treatment for alopecia areata. J Dermatol. 2002;29:343–6. [PubMed[]
62. Kaplan AL, Olsen EA. Topical 5-fluorouracil is ineffective in the treatment of extensive alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004;50:941–3. [PubMed[]
63. van der Velden EM, Drost BH, Ijsselmuiden OE, Baruchin AM, Hulsebosch HJ. Dermatography as a new treatment for alopecia areata of the eyebrows. Int J Dermatol. 1998;37:617–21. [PubMed[]
64. Schwartz DM, Bonelli M, Gadina M, O’Shea JJ. Type I/II cytokines, JAKs, and new strategies for treating autoimmune diseases. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2016;12:25–36. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
65. Jabbari A, Dai Z, Xing L. Targeting of JAK3 prevents onset of murine alopecia areata.Immunology I: Adaptive immunity abstracts. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:S97–107. []
66. Haikarainen AT, Raivola J, Silvennoinen O. Selective JAK-nibs: Prospects in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Bio Drugs. 2019;33:15–32. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
67. Xing L, Dai Z, Jabbari A, Cerise JE, Higgins CA, Gong W, et al. Alopecia areata is driven by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and is reversed by JAK inhibition. Nat Med. 2014;20:1043–9. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
68. Harel S, Higgins CA, Cerise JE, Dai Z, Chen JC, Clynes R, et al. Pharmacologic inhibition of JAK-STAT signalling promotes hair growth. Sci Adv. 2015;1:e1500973. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
69. Triyangkulsri K, Suchonwanit P. Role of Janus kinase inhibitors in the treatment of alopecia areata. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2018;12:2323–35. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
70. Olamiju B, Friedmann A, King B. Treatment of severe alopecia areata with baricitinib. JAAD Case Rep. 2019;5:892–4. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
71. Phan K, Sebaratnam DF. JAK inhibitors for alopecia areata: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2019;33:850–6. [PubMed[]
72. Smolen JS, Genovese MC, Takeuchi T, Hyslop DL, Macias WL, Rooney T, et al. Safety profile of baricitinib in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis with over 2 years median time in treatment. J Rheumatol. 2019;46:7–18. [PubMed[]
73. Winthrop KL, Park SH, Gul A, Cardiel MH, Gomez-Reino JJ, Tanaka Y, et al. Tuberculosis and other opportunistic infections in tofacitinib-treated patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2016;75:1133–8. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
74. Cohen SB, Tanaka Y, Mariette X, Curtis JR, Lee EB, Nash P, et al. Long-term safety of tofacitinib for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis up to 8.5 years: Integrated analysis of data from the global clinical trials. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017;76:1253–62. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
75. Craiglow BG. Topical tofacitinib solution for the treatment of alopecia areata affecting eyelashes. JAAD Case Rep. 2018;4:988–9. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
76. Bokhari L, Sinclair R. Treatment of alopecia universalis with topical Janus kinase inhibitors – A double blind, placebo, and active controlled pilot study. Int J Dermatol. 2018;57:1464–70. [PubMed[]
77. Aleisa A, Lim Y, Gordon S, Her MJ, Zancanaro P, Abudu M, et al. Response to ustekinumab in three pediatric patients with alopecia areata. Pediatr Dermatol. 2019;36:e44–5. [PubMed[]
78. Hamilton JD, Ungar B, Guttman-Yassky E. Drug evaluation review: Dupilumab in atopic dermatitis. Immunotherapy. 2015;7:1043–58. [PubMed[]
79. Uchida H, Kamata M, Watanabe A, Agematsu A, Nagata M, Fukaya S, et al. Dupilumab improved alopecia areata in a patient with atopic dermatitis: A case report. Acta Derm Venereol. 2019;99:675–6. [PubMed[]
80. Estébanez A, Estébanez N, Martín JM, Montesinos E. Apremilast in refractory alopecia areata. Int J Trichology. 2019;11:213–5. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
81. Mikhaylov D, Pavel A, Yao C, Kimmel G, Nia J, Hashim P, et al. A randomized placebo-controlled single-center pilot study of the safety and efficacy of apremilast in subjects with moderate-to-severe alopecia areata. Arch Dermatol Res. 2019;311:29–36. [PubMed[]
82. Abatacept Highlights of prescribing Information. 2013. [Last accessed on 2022 Jan 16]. Available from:
83. Trink A, Sorbellini E, Bezzola P, Rodella L, Rezzani R, Ramot Y, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled, half-head study to evaluate the effects of platelet-rich plasma on alopecia areata. Br J Dermatol. 2013;169:690–4. [PubMed[]
84. Cole BJ, Seroyer ST, Filardo G, Bajaj S, Fortier LA. Platelet-rich plasma: Where are we now and where are we going? Sports Health. 2010;2:203–10. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
85. Sundaram H, Mehta RC, Norine JA, Kircik L, Cook-Bolden FE, Atkin DH, et al. Topically applied physiologically balanced growth factors: A new paradigm of skin rejuvenation. J Drugs Dermatol. 2009;8:4–13. [PubMed[]
86. Li ZJ, Choi HI, Choi DK, Sohn KC, Im M, Seo YJ, et al. Autologous platelet-rich plasma: A potential therapeutic tool for promoting hair growth. Dermatol Surg. 2012;38:1040–6. [PubMed[]
87. Renert-Yuval Y, Guttman-Yassky E. The changing landscape of alopecia areata: The therapeutic paradigm. Adv Ther. 2017;34:1594–609. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
88. Katikaneni R, Seymour AW, Gulati R, Ponnapakkam T, Gensure RC. Therapy for alopecia areata in mice by stimulating the hair cycle with parathyroid hormone agonists linked to a collagen-binding domain. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2015;17:13–5. [PubMed[]
89. Inui S, Nakajima T, Toda N, Itami S. Fexofenadine hydro- chloride enhances the efficacy of contact immunotherapy for extensive alopecia areata: Retrospective analysis of 121 cases. J Dermatol. 2009;36:323–7. [PubMed[]
90. Choi JW, Suh DW, Lew BL, Sim WY. Simvastatin/ezetimibe therapy for recalcitrant alopecia areata: An open prospective study of 14 patients. Ann Dermatol. 2017;29:755–60. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
91. Mach F. Immunosuppressive effects of statins. Atheroscler Suppl. 2002;3:17–20. [PubMed[]
92. Oh MS, Min YJ, Kwon JE, Cho EJ, Kim JE, Lee WS, et al. Effects of ezetimibe added to ongoing statin therapy on C-reactive protein levels in hypercholesterolemic patients. Korean Circ J. 2011;41:253–8. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
93. Lux-Battistelli C. Combination therapy with zinc gluconate and PUVA for alopecia areata totalis: An adjunctive but crucial role of zinc supplementation. Dermatol Ther. 2015;28:235–8. [PubMed[]
94. Tsai TY, Huang YC. Vitamin D deficiency in patients with alopecia areata: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018;78:207–9. [PubMed[]
95. Lim YY, Kim SY, Kim HM, Li KS, Kim MN, Park KC, et al. Potential relationship between the canonical Wnt signalling pathway and expression of the vitamin D receptor in alopecia. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2014;39:368–75. [PubMed[]
96. Çerman AA, Solak SS, Altunay İ, Küçükünal NA. Topical calcipotriol therapy for mild-to-moderate alopecia areata: A retrospective study. J Drugs Dermatol. 2015;14:616–20. [PubMed[]
97. Narang T, Daroach M, Kumaran MS. Efficacy and safety of topical calcipotriol in management of alopecia areata: A pilot study. Dermatol Ther. 2017;30:e12464. [PubMed[]
98. Lin X, Meng X, Song Z. Vitamin D and alopecia areata: Possible roles in pathogenesis and potential implications for therapy. Am J Transl Res. 2019;11:5285–300. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
99. De Luca F, Shoenfeld Y. The microbiome in autoimmune dis- eases. Clin Exp Immunol. 2019;195:74–85. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
100. Pinto D, Sorbellini E, Marzani B, Rucco M, Giuliani G, Rinaldi F. Scalp bacterial shift in Alopecia areata. PLoS One. 2019;14:e0215206. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
101. Borde A, Åstrand A. Alopecia areata and the gut-the link opens up for novel therapeutic interventions. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2018;22:503–11. [PubMed[]
102. Rebello D, Wang E, Yen E, Lio PA, Kelly CR. Hair growth in two alopecia patients after fecal microbiota transplant. ACG Case Rep J. 2017;4:e107. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
103. FDA. Information Pertaining to Additional Safety Protections Regarding Use of Fecal Microbiota for Transplantation – Screening and Testing of Stool Donors for Multi-Drug Resistant Organisms. 2019. [Last accessed on 2021 Jan 21]. Available from:
104. Wang S, Xu M, Wang W, Cao X, Piao M, Khan S, et al. Systematic review: Adverse events of fecal microbiota transplantation. PLoS One. 2016;11:e0161174. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
105. Byun JW, Kim HJ, Na K, Ko HS, Song HJ, Song SU, et al. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells prevent alopecia areata development through the inhibition of NKG2D expression: A pilot study. Exp Dermatol. 2017;26:532–5. [PubMed[]
106. Bak DH, Choi MJ, Kim SR, Lee BC, Kim JM, Jeon ES, et al. Human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells engineered to overexpress growth factors accelerate outcomes in hair growth. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2018;22:555–66. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
107. Kim JE, Oh JH, Woo YJ, Jung JH, Jeong KH, Kang H. Effects of mesenchymal stem cell therapy on alopecia areata in cellular and hair follicle organ culture models. Exp Dermatol. 2020;29:265–72. [PubMed[]
108. Anderi R, Makdissy N, Azar A, Rizk F, Hamade A. Cellular therapy with human autologous adipose-derived adult cells of stromal vascular fraction for alopecia areata. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2018;9:141. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
109. Wang TT, Yang J, Zhang Y, Zhang M, Dubois S, Conlon KC, et al. IL-2 and IL-15 blockade by BNZ-1, an inhibitor of selective γ-chain cytokines, decreases leukemic T-cell viability. Leukemia. 2019;33:1243–55. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
110. Howard C, Do Young K. Use of lasers in the treatment of alopecia areata. Med Lasers Eng Basic Res Clini Appl. 2016;5:71–6. []
111. Popovic B, Breed J, Rees DG, Gardener MJ, Vinall LM, Kemp B, et al. Structural characterisation reveals mechanism of IL-13-neutralising monoclonal antibody tralokinumab as inhibition of binding to IL-13Rα1 and IL-13Rα2. J Mol Biol. 2017;429:208–19. [PubMed[]
112. Nakamura M, Jo J, Tabata Y, Ishikawa O. Controlled delivery of T-box21 small interfering RNA ameliorates autoimmune alopecia (Alopecia Areata) in a C3H/HeJ mouse model. Am J Pathol. 2008;172:650–8. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
113. Hordinsky MK. Treatment of alopecia areata: “What is new on the horizon.”? Dermatol Ther. 2011;24:364–8. [PubMed[]


Follow by Email